One particular technological system that has rapidly grown in recent years is the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). The main threat to the reliable and safe operation of GNSS is the variable propagation conditions encountered by GNSS signals as they pass through the Earth's upper atmosphere, particularly at high and low latitudes and under perturbed conditions coming from the outer space.
With the aim of tackling the polar atmosphere and its effects on GNSS based systems, GRAPE (GNSS Research and Application for Polar Environment) has been established as an Expert Group of SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research). GRAPE, built on the former SCAR Action Group GWSWF (GPS for Weather and Space Weather Forecasting), deals with the multi-instrument monitoring and investigation of the bi-polar neutral and ionized atmosphere.
The state of the art of GRAPE and its future perspective is presented to stimulate discussions and to encourage scientists and research groups to participate in the future GRAPE actions leading to the new Scientific Research Program (RESOURCE- Radio Sciences Research on AntarCtic AtmosphEre).