# 2018 INSPIRE and Small Sat Workshop

Europe/Paris
Charpak room (Paris, France)

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
, , , , ,
Description

One year after the INSPIRE (International Satellite Program in Research and Education) meeting in Boulder (http://inspiresat.com/), the LASP and the LATMOS are happy to invite you to the INSPIRE Workshop (27-29 August) in Paris, France. This meeting is open to anyone involved in small satellites and space physics. It intends to review the recent progresses in those fields, to analyze the possibilities, but also the limitations of the current space-based observation facilities, and to discuss the major challenges for future missions. The workshop is followed by an optional two-days Training and Brainstorming Meeting on Small Sat. Projects (30-31 August).

• Monday, 27 August
• 13:30 14:00
Welcome and Registration Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
• 14:00 14:15
Meeting introduction (M. Meftah, P. Keckhut) Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
• 14:15 16:00
Session 1: The INSPIRE program Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
• 14:15
Small spacecraft and big objectives: INSPIRE in the New Space world 25m
Small spacecraft can be a great learning and training tool, but can also contribute greatly to science advancement. While small spacecraft cannot do everything in the science realm, they can fill important niches and they can complement the major missions of the various national space agencies. Especially in key arenas such as Earth observation and space weather monitoring, small missions can provide crucial data that inform policy decisions and can more quickly be developed and launched than will be the large operational systems. Understanding the proper role for small missions now and in the future is a key aspect of the INSPIRE strategy that must be understood going forward.
Speaker: Dr Daniel Baker (LASP)
• 14:40
INSPIRE X: Global Collaboration and the University of the Future 20m
Speaker: Mr Michael McGrath (UAE University Al Ain)
• 15:00
The INSPIRE Program: From inception to three satellites. 20m
In this presentation, I shall be giving an overview and current status of the International Satellite Program in Research and Education (INSPIRE). Since its inception in 2015, INSPIRE has now grown to three satellite missions in various stages of development funded by multiple Universities and agencies. INSPIRE continues to attract interest from Universities to become partners and new mission ideas. INSPIRE has developed new innovative methods of curriculum development in participating universities and the first group of students trained under INSPIRE are close to graduation. This presentation will touch on future directions for the program and enable brainstorming for facilitating new strategic directions to take the program forward.
Speaker: Prof. Amal Chandran (Nanyang Technological University &amp; LASP)
• 15:20
JANUS a CNES (french space agency) program for developing cubesats by students 20m
In the mythology, JANUS is a god who is the symbol of "the passer". This program initiated by CNES in 2012 proposes to "pass" knowledge and enthusiasm, to young people and more particularly to students. This program is a concrete tool to involve students more actively in space science. The main objectives of JANUS are as follow: - promote space activities by supporting students to develop orbital systems made up of: - Cubesats with a mass of between 1 and 50 kg, - Ground segment (ground station, control center, mission center). - Promote in-orbit demonstrators for needs of the scientific and industrial community. This will allow to validate and to improve TRL, in a short time and at low cost, new satellite and instrumental technologies (materials, detectors, components, ASIC, propulsion, attitude control, on board computer, electrical architecture, radio communication, etc.). The results of these technological demonstrations could be used by CNES for the needs of other space missions. Twelve cubesats are developing in 10 french universities and engineering schools. More 2000 students have been involved from 2012. In 2017 three french cubesats have been launched. Two double cubesats: XCUBESAT from « Ecole Polytechnique » (Paris) and SPACECUBE from « Ecole des mines » (Paris) have been deployed in orbit from ISS in May. ROBUSTA1B (a simple cubesat) from Montpellier university has been launched by a PSLV from India in June. The two double cubesats are a part of the QB50 network, a belgium project of 50 cubesats to study the thermosphere.
Speaker: Mr Alain Gaboriaud (CNES)
• 15:40
The space-based and the ground-based missions of the LATMOS 20m
We will share experiences of the space industry and role of academia in space research in France.
Speaker: Prof. Philippe Keckhut (LATMOS)
• 16:00 16:15
Coffee Break 15m Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
• 16:15 17:15
Round table discussion: Small satellites in education (Mike McGrath, Rick Kohnert, Alain Sarkissian, Amal Chandran, Loren Chang) Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University

Building small satellites with students, how to execute these program successfully, how to handle student projects etc.

• Tuesday, 28 August
• 09:00 10:50
Session 1: The INSPIRE program Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
Convener: Philippe Keckhut
• 09:00
IDEASSat - A 3U CubeSat for Ionospheric Science and Capacity Building 30m
CubeSats are rapidly becoming a viable platform for scientific observations, in addition to their long established role in engineering education. In this presentation, we share our experiences in initiating a CubeSat development and operations program at National Central University (NCU) in Taiwan, building on a foundation of ionospheric research and payload development, as well as participation in INSPIRE. Leveraging our experience from involvement with INSPIRESat-1, we are developing the Ionosphere Dynamics Explorer and Attitude Subsystem Satellite (IDEASSat) - a 3U CubeSat mission funded in part by the Taiwan National Space Organization (NSPO). Like INSPIRESat-1, IDEASSat uses the Compact Ionosphere Probe as primary payload, but is subject to constraints including limited mass and power. When completed and launched, IDEASSat, in conjunction with FORMOSAT-5 and INSPIRESat-1 will provide new opportunities for expanded ionospheric observations. Development of the spacecraft is a key mission of the new Space Science and Technology Research Center being established at NCU, as well as a component of the new aerospace engineering curriculum.
Speaker: Prof. Loren Chang (National Central University)
• 09:30
The design and analysis of INSPIRE’s structure and thermal subsystems 20m
Speaker: Mr Spencer Boyajian (LASP)
• 09:50
Analysis & Design of IDEASSat Communication Subsystem 20m
Speaker: Mr Liao Chi-Ting (Graduate Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Taiwan)
• 10:10
The Occultation Wave Limb Sounder (OWLS) on INSPIRESat-3 20m
Solar occultations served as an early work-horse for characterizing the temperature and density of Earth's thermosphere because of the technique's capability of making self-calibrated measurements of thermospheric density from roughly 90 to 400 km. However, solar occultations have been abandoned in recent decades, and few, if any, satellite-borne solar occultation instruments designed specifically for characterizing the thermosphere have ever flown. Meanwhile, few other methods have been proven capable of profiling the 120-300 km region of the thermosphere, leading some authors to label this region the "Thermospheric Gap" due to the lack of measurements over this region. Of recent interest is understanding the degree to which gravity waves heat or cool the thermosphere. And, while it is generally accepted that gravity waves contribute significantly to the thermosphere's energy budget, predictions of the amount of heating or cooling due to gravity waves vary widely. The Occultation Wave Limb Sounder (OWLS) instrument scheduled to fly on the INSPIRESat-3 small-sat aims to measure gravity wave heating and cooling in the thermosphere by making solar occultation measurements from 90 to 400 km, spanning from the mesopause to the exobase. OWLS is capable of measuring major neutral species (O2, N2 and O) density and temperature at 1 km vertical resolution below 225 km, and 15 km resolution above 200 km. OWLS will achieve its science goals with two ultraviolet channels. One channel is an imaging MUV-FUV spectrograph for measuring O2 density and gravity waves from 90-225 km at high absolute accuracy and 1 km vertical resolution, using methods proven in the early 1970s. The second channel consists of two EUV photometers at 20 and 30 nm for measuring density, temperature and abundance from 150-400 km at 15 km vertical resolution using methods proven recently for EUV photometers at both Earth and Mars. This talk will describe the OWLS science objectives, instrumentation, measurement principles, and anticipated observations.
Speaker: Dr Ed Thiemann (LASP, University of Colorado)
• 10:30
Education for satellite programs: from lower secondary school up to PhD students 20m
We will present here our activities at LATMOS / OVSQ / IPSL related to education on satellite programs. We are involved in many educational programs and many of them, like our scientific activities in fact, concern satellites. We are developing it in the frame of our routine teaching activities at the University level of course, but also in the frame of several other projects: H2020 European (EDU-ARCTIC), ERASMUS + (ERIS) and French CNES or IPSL supported projects. Our students start from secondary school and goes up to PhD students.
Speaker: Dr Alain SARKISSIAN (LATMOS / UVSQ / UPMC / CNRS)
• 10:50 11:00
Coffee Break 10m Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
• 11:00 12:40
Session 2: Results from recent space missions Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
Convener: Dr Mustapha Meftah (LATMOS / CNRS / Paris-Saclay University)
• 11:00
Building on the heritage of PROBA2/LYRA for future small-sat missions 20m
PROBA2 is an ESA micro-sat that hosts two solar instruments: SWAP, an EUV telescope, and LYRA, a radiometer observing the Sun in four bandpasses spanning the XUV to MUV range. LYRA primary objectives are the monitoring of solar activity for space weather purposes and the analysis of solar flares, but it has also been used in other specific contexts such as the determination of O+N2 densities in the Earth atmosphere by exploiting the occultation measurements. In this talk, we will discuss how small satellites can be used to complement/pursue the main LYRA observations.
Speaker: Marie Dominique (ROB)
• 11:20
Tracking of predominant periodicities evolution for PROBA2/LYRA and other long-term solar time series 20m
The periodograms of the PROBA2/LYRA data show predominant periodicities comparable to the ones observed by other solar time series for the same time range. These periodicities have been found to slightly vary over time. Tracking their evolution on a long-term basis aims at identifying which periodicities are related to each other and at determining which physical processes are at their origin. A study has been made on sunspot area, for which several solar cycles of data exist and for which the periodicities are close to the ones found in LYRA (for the same time range). We used framed Lomb-Scargle periodograms to extract the periodicities and check their evolution. Several significant periodicities behave similarly and seem to be harmonically related.
Speaker: Dr Laurence Wauters (ROB)
• 11:40
SOLAR/SOLSPEC : highlights of the 9-year SOLAR mission 20m
The SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument, installed on the SOLAR payload on board the International Space Station, has performed between 2008 and 2017 Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) measurements from the UV to the NIR. It was an upgrade version of SOLSPEC launched in the 80’s and 90’s for SPACELAB, ATLAS, and EURECA missions. We will present the highlights of the 9-year SOLAR mission. The requirements for such long term space mission is a robust instrumentation, an absolute calibration, a full radiometric characterization for any degradation of performances in space environment. The SOLAR/SOLSPEC design, the pre-launch and in-flight performances will be presented. The results are a new reference solar spectrum (at low and high resolution), with particular interest on the SSI level in the NIR band, measured in space up to 3 µm and confirmed by ground-based validation campaigns. Ongoing work concerns the UV variability during solar cycle 24. Perspectives for new instrumentation and lessons learned from the SOLAR mission will also be presented.
Speaker: Dr David Bolsée (BIRA-IASB)
• 12:00
Metrology of the Solar Spectral Irradiance at the Top of Atmosphere in the Near Infrared using Ground Based Instruments: The PYR-ILIOS campaign 20m
The near infrared (NIR) part of the solar spectrum is of prime importance for the solar physics and climatology, directly intervening in the Earth's radiation budget. Despite its major role, available solar spectral irradiance (SSI) NIR datasets, space-borne or ground based, present discrepancies caused by instrumental or methodological reasons. We present new results obtained from the PYR-ILIOS campaign, which is a replication of the previous IRSPERAD campaign which took place in 2011 at the Iza\~{n}a Observatory (IZO). We used the same instrument and primary calibration source of spectral irradiance. A new site was chosen for PYR-ILIOS: the Mauna-Loa observatory in Hawaii (3397 m asl), approximately 1000 m higher than IZO. Relatively to IRSPERAD, the methodology of monitoring the traceability to the primary calibration source was improved. The results as well as a detailed error budget are presented. We demonstrate that the most recent results, from PYR-ILIOS and other space-borne and ground-based experiments show an NIR SSI lower than ATLAS3 for wavelengths above $1.6 \mu m$.
Speaker: Mr Nuno José Pereira (BIRA-IASB)
• 12:20
Ultraviolet solar spectral irradiance variability over Cycle 24 with SOLAR/SOLSPEC 9 years of data from the International Space Station 20m
Accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) and its temporal variation are of primary interest to better understand solar mechanisms and the links between solar variability and Earth’s atmosphere and climate. We present recent ultraviolet (UV) SSI observations performed by the SOLAR/SOLSPEC spectrometer on board the International Space Station. SOLAR/SOLSPEC observations cover the essential of the solar cycle 24, from April 5, 2008 to February 15, 2017.We provide an evolution of the solar spectral irradiance during Cycle 24 using the SOLAR/SOLSPEC data thanks to revised engineering corrections, improved calibrations, and advanced procedures to account for thermal and aging corrections of the instrument. The SOLAR/SOLSPEC observations are compared with other measurements (SORCE/SOLSTICE, SORCE/SIM, SCIAMACHY) and models (SATIRE-S, NRLSSI). Importance of results justify new mission (SoSWEET-SOUP) with enhanced SSI measurements (SOLSIM instrument).
Speaker: Dr Luc Damé (LATMOS/IPSL/CNRS/UVSQ)
• 12:40 14:00
Lunch 1h 20m
• 14:00 15:00
Session 2: Results from recent space missions Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
Convener: Dr Mustapha Meftah (LATMOS / CNRS / Paris-Saclay University)
• 14:00
The detection of ultra-relativistic electrons in low Earth orbit by the LYRA instrument on board the PROBA2 satellite 20m
We present the analysis of energetic particles, indirectly detected by the Large Yield RAdiometer (LYRA) instrument on board ESA's Project for On-board Autonomy 2 (PROBA2) satellite in the form of microbursts of <10 ms, with a phenomenon duration of 100 s. Combining Energetic Particle Telescope (EPT/PROBA-V) observations with LYRA data for an overlapping period of time, we identified these particles as electrons with an energy range of 2 to 8 MeV. The observed events are strongly correlated to geo-magnetic activity and appear even during modest disturbances. Additionally, they are well confined geographically within the L=4-6 McIlwain zones, and they show prominent dawn-dusk and day-night asymmetries.
Speaker: Dr Athanassios Katsiyannis (Royal Observatory of Belgium)
• 14:20
Tropical middle atmosphere ozone response to the solar rotational cycle in observations and chemistry-climate simulations 20m
Solar spectral irradiance fluctuations associated with the Sun’s 27-day rotational cycle can significantly influence ozone variability in the tropical middle atmosphere. In the stratosphere, previous observational studies based on different instruments and time periods revealed however large disparities in the magnitude of the ozone response to the 27-day solar signal. For the mesosphere, only few observational estimates of the ozone response to the 27-day solar cycle are available. This is partly due to the relative paucity of ozone measurements and the considerable amplitude of the ozone diurnal variations at these altitudes which both make the detection of solar signals in ozone difficult. The results presented here summarize the main findings of two studies that used satellite ozone data (UARS-MLS, Aura-MLS and ENVISAT-GOMOS) and chemistry-climate simulations of LMDz-REPROBUS and HAMMONIA models in order (i) to understand the discrepancies in previous estimates of the stratospheric ozone solar rotational signal and (ii) to quantify the mesosphere/lower thermosphere ozone response to the solar rotational cycle. Observational ozone response to solar irradiance variations are identified and quantified from linear correlation and regression methods combined with non-parametric statistical tests. Observational results are then compared with the results from chemistry-climate model simulations which are driven with realistic and/or idealized solar irradiance forcings. The analysis of stratosphere MLS ozone data and their comparison with LMDz-Reprobus results show that the dynamical variability modulates the ozone solar rotational signal, which partly explain the discrepancies found in previous observational studies. This dynamical variability masking effect can be overcome by considering long timeseries; we found that a minimum of a 3 year time window is needed for the 1σ uncertainty estimate of the ozone solar rotational signal to drop below 50%. The analysis of mesosphere/lower thermosphere GOMOS data allowed us to derive the first observation-based night-time ozone response to the solar rotational cycle in the range [50,110] km. The vertical distribution of this ozone response exhibits a maximum at 80 km and an abrupt increase above 100 km. Although qualitatively consistent with GOMOS observations, the results from HAMMONIA simulations significantly underestimates the magnitude of the ozone response. Possible causes for these discrepancies will be discussed.
Speaker: Dr Rémi Thieblemont (CNRS)
• 14:40
Returns on the PicSat project and 10 weeks of operation 20m
PicSat was a three unit CubeSat (measuring 30 cm × 10 cm × 10 cm) which was developed to monitor the β Pictoris system. The main science objective was the detection of a possible transit of the giant planet β Pictoris b’s Hill sphere. Secondary objectives included studying the circumstellar disk, and detecting exocomets in the visible band. The mission also had a technical objective: demonstrate our ability to inject starlight in a single mode fiber, on a small satellite platform. To answer all those objectives, a dedicated opto-mechanical payload was built, and integrated in a commercial 3U platform, along with a commercial ADCS (Attitude Determination and Control System). The satellite successfully reached Low Earth Orbit on the PSLV-C40 rocket, on January, 12, 2018. Unfortunately, on March, 20, 2018, after 10 weeks of operations, the satellite fell silent, and the mission came to an early end. Furthermore, due to a failure of the ADCS, the satellite never actually pointed toward its target star during the 10 weeks of operations. In this presentation, we report on the PicSat mission development process, and on the reasons why it did not deliver any useful astronomical data.
Speaker: Dr Vincent Lapeyrere (LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité)
• 15:05 16:35
Session 3: Small satellite missions Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
Convener: Marie Dominique (ROB)
• 15:05
High Priority Solar Science and Technology Demonstration with CubeSats 30m
The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) has developed three solar science CubeSats so far and has three more planned. The first one is called the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS, PI: T. Woods), and it is a NASA Heliophysics 3-Unit (3U) CubeSat to study the energy distribution of solar soft X-ray (SXR) emissions of the quiescent Sun, active regions, and flares, and its data are being used to model the solar SXR impact in Earth’s ionosphere, thermosphere, and mesosphere (ITM). The first of the two MinXSS CubeSats was deployed from the International Space Station (ISS) in May 2016, and the second is expected to be launched in October 2018 along with LASP’s second solar CubeSat called the Compact Spectral Irradiance Monitor (CSIM, PI: E. Richard). The CSIM is a NASA Earth Science 6U CubeSat to study the solar spectral irradiance (SSI) from 200 nm to 2400 nm and is a validation of the CSIM technology with the on-going SIM observations from SORCE and TSIS-1. LASP has three more solar CubeSats planned for the coming years. One is the Compact Total Irradiance Monitor (CTIM, PI: D. Harber), which is a pending NASA Earth Science 6U CubeSat mission to study the total solar irradiance (TSI). The CSIM and CTIM missions are important technology demonstration for the future of the NOAA-NASA climate records of SSI and TSI, respectively. LASP is also planning for the Occultation Wave Limb Sounder (OWLS: PI: E. Thiemann) development in the coming year as a contribution for the INSPIRESat-3 mission. The OWLS is based on a far ultraviolet (FUV) and middle ultraviolet (MUV) solar spectrograph developed for an underflight calibration for SORCE in June 2018; the OWLS is an upgrade of that instrument to make solar occultation measurements to study thermosphere dynamics such as gravity waves. A new solar physics mission is also being planned to study the coronal mass ejections acceleration and energetics low in the corona with a new instrument called the Sun’s Corona Eruption Tracker (SunCET, PI: P. Chamberlin). The SunCET mission is also a technology demonstration effort to mature this new compact instrument that has an imager channel and a spectrograph channel for solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations. The miniaturization of technology over the past few years has enabled the ability to make these compact instruments that are appropriate for science CubeSat missions. Furthermore, space agencies are realizing the great value of low-cost, small missions for some of their science goals, industry partners are providing reliable spacecraft bus systems small enough for CubeSats, and launch service providers are offering many more opportunities for secondary rides into space than ever before.
Speaker: Dr Tom Woods (LASP / University of Colorado)
• 15:35
Think the way to measure the Earth Radiation Budget and the Total Solar Irradiance with a small satellites constellation 20m
Speakers: Dr Luc Damé (LATMOS), Dr Mustapha Meftah (LATMOS / CNRS / Paris-Saclay University), Prof. Philippe Keckhut (LATMOS)
• 15:55
MPVIEW : A multi-satellite mapping system to fully monitor and characterize waves in Venus’ atmosphere 20m
MPVIEW (Multi Platform Venus Imager to Elucidate Waves) is a small multi-satellite mapping system to fully monitor and characterize waves in Venus’ atmosphere. It is deployed sequentially by a mother spacecraft initially inserted in a high apoapsis equatorial orbit during the downsizing of the initial orbit to the final orbit of observation. To understand the angular momentum budget that maintain superrotation, general circulation models are valuable tools. They show that mean meridional circulation, thermal tides (diurnal and semi-diurnal components) and planetary-scale waves (periods around 4-6 Earth days, wavenumbers 1 or 2) play a role in this subtle balance. To validate the simulations, it is crucial to characterize these three components through observations. However, these observations and characterizations are difficult. One way would be to monitor the full range of longitudes during a significant time period. Thermal infrared is the only wavelength range where day and night sides can be observed at the same time. Such a coverage would give the temperature, zonal and meridional wind fields at the cloud-top, and could help characterize the major players in the angular momentum transport, at least near the cloud-top. While it is not enough to fully characterize the circulation through observations only, it would be a crucial constraint to validate circulation models. This coverage would also give access to a full monitoring of the stationary waves that have been observed by Akatsuki and that are related to interaction of mountains with the near-surface flow. This monitoring (timing, frequency, position, variability of the bow-shaped waves) would give constraints on the modeling of the near-surface circulation, which is an additional and very valuable constraint on the GCM simulations and on the atmosphere-surface interaction. The ideal configuration to monitor waves would be a constellation of 3 small satellites all orbiting Venus on the same equatorial circular orbit and located at 120° from each other, that is forming an equilateral triangle. These satellites have to be equipped with a long wave infrared camera similar to the LIR instrument onboard Akatsuki providing a full thermal infrared image of a wide equator-centered latitudinal band. Assuming a typical field of view of 0.3 rad and a scale of 1 mrad/px, and a typical orbit radius of 40 000 km, each imager would cover the whole Venus disk with a nadir spatial resolution of ≈40 km. The most natural way to proceed is to release 2 small nadir-pointing satellites from 1 mother spacecraft after Venus equatorial orbit insertion and to use the mother spacecraft as a third observation platform. It is not possible to achieve the ideal configuration described above, which would require unrealistically large propulsion resources. Assuming that the main spacecraft in inserted in a large apoapsis elliptical orbit with a further progressive reduction of the apoapsis altitude, it is relatively easy and only little energy-consuming to release the small satellites from predefined intermediate orbits. In this way, the 3 observation platforms may be placed on coplanar elliptical orbits of different apoapsis (and to some extent periapsis) altitudes, with different orbital periods, allowing to observe simultaneously several longitude ranges. We will present the results of a preliminary study aiming at characterizing the best solutions in terms of orbit parameters and periods to maximize the longitudinal coverage of MPVIEW in order to monitor and fully characterize the complex wave system in Venus’ atmosphere.
Speaker: Dr Eric Chassefière (GEOPS, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay)
• 16:15
Design of the calibration facility for the characterization of MAJIS/JUICE VIS-NIR detectors 20m
MAJIS (Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer) is an instrument part of the science payload of the ESA L-Class mission JUICE (Jupiter ICy Moons Explorer) to be launched in 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in 2030 [1]. MAJIS will perform imaging spectroscopy to analyze the chemical compounds on the surfaces of the Galilean satellites, the characterization of their exospheres, the monitoring of peculiar aspects such as Io's and Europa torii and Io's volcanic activity, the study of Jupiter atmosphere, and the spectral characterization of the Jupiter system [2]. IASB-BIRA and ROB will contribute to MAJIS with the characterization of the VIS-NIR detectors, which includes the measurements of dark current, read-out noise, full-well capacity, conversion gain, persistence, linearity, defective pixels, quantum efficiency, fixed pattern noise, power dissipation, power consumption and operability. Since some of the mentioned parameters require different illumination conditions, beam uniformity, exposure time, and/or data acquisition procedure for their measurement, three configurations have been established. The configuration 1 will be used to develop tests under dark conditions, the configuration 2 will assure light uniformity over the detector surface by means of an integrating sphere, and the configuration 3 will provide as close as possible the light beam that the detector should receive from MAJIS telescope using a focusing array. The facility is divided in blocks. The entrance block includes a stable light source covering the spectral range of MAJIS followed by a variable aperture and a filter wheel, which can be remotely controlled. To assure uniformity on the beam, an integrating sphere could be used after the filter wheel in case the Signal-to-Noise Ratio is enough. The second block consists of a dual output monochromator with its own filter wheel and a PbS detector to monitor the stability of the light beam; the spectra obtained will be directed through an optical fiber to the last block. The final block receives the light beam from the optical fiber to the integrating sphere with a calibrated PbS reference detector and, depending on the configuration used, the integrating sphere could be connected directly to the vacuum chamber or to the focusing array. The vacuum chamber will harbor the VIS-NIR Focal Plane Unit (FPU), which mainly contains the detector and its electronics, a movable cold plate, the electronic shutter and the cryocooler. The vacuum chamber will guarantee the cleanliness of the FPU and the necessary stable thermal conditions to characterize the HgCdTe detectors (<140K) working at a high-vacuum level in the order of 10$^{-6}$mbar. Moreover, the facility will provide a thermal control unit for the internal components of the FPU, the movable cold plate and the shutter, N2 flushing for the light path outside the vacuum chamber, the remote control of the spectrometer the filter wheel and the shutter, temperature and vacuum monitoring, and a security system to avoid conditions which could damage the detector and other critical components, besides the data processing software to analyze the detector response. The design of the facility is developed through different analysis in optics, electronics, mechanics and software programming according to the requirements that shall be achieved in an iterative process to pass from the conceptual design to the preliminary design and finally to the detailed design. The facility should be validated at the beginning of 2019. This work describes the objectives and the foreseen designs of the calibration bench which will be used to characterize the MAJIS/JUICE VIS-NIR detectors at the IASB-BIRA laboratories, as well as some expected results. References: [1] Grasset, M. K., et al.: JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE): An ESA mission to orbit Ganymede and to characterise the Jupiter system, Planetary and Space Science, Vol. 78, pp. 1-21, 2013. [2] Langevin, Y., and MAJIS Team: MAJIS (Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer) for JUICE: objectives for the Galilean satellites, European Planetary Science Congress, Vol. 8, pp. EPSC2013-548-1, 2013. *This project acknowledges funding by the Belgian Science Policy Office (BELSPO) by PRODEX-11 Project Proposal: 'Characterization of JUICE/MAJIS VIS-NIR detectors'.*
Speaker: Ms Miriam Estefanía Cisneros González (BIRA-IASB)
• 16:35 16:50
Coffee Break 15m Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
• 16:50 17:50
Session 3: Small satellite missions Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
Convener: Marie Dominique (ROB)
• 16:50
MARTIC, a satellites constellation addressing fundamental atmospheric parameters from the middle stratosphere to the upper mesosphere 20m
MARTIC (Middle Atmsophere Rayleigh Temperature Instruments Constellation) is a future innovative small satellites constellation, which aims to measure the middle atmosphere temperature from the middle stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. The accurate knowledge of the atmospheric vertical temperature profile and its temporal variation remains a topic of considerable scientific and societal importance. These measurements are of strategic interest for a large number of environmental, aeronautical and space applications. We are looking to set up a unique service, which provides atmospheric density and temperature vertical profiles data in near real time with a full Earth coverage and an excellent revisit time. The first step is to develop a small in-orbit demonstration satellite to provide early flight access to our promising and disruptive innovation system to measure fundamental atmospheric parameters.
Speakers: Dr Alain Hauchecorne (CNRS-LATMOS), Dr Philippe Keckhut (LATMOS)
• 17:10
A CubeSat-sized limb-sounder for the observation of high resolution temperature profiles in the middle atmosphere 20m
A limb sounder utilizing a Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer for the detection of the O2 Atmospheric A-Band is presented. This instrument is suited to fly on a 3-6 unit CubeSat. The purpose of the instrument is to measure vertical profiles of temperature in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. A prototype version of this instrument was successfully tested on a REXUS sounding rocket by a student team.
Speaker: Dr Martin Kaufmann (Forschungszentrum Jülich)
• 17:30
LASP SmallSat capabilities 20m
Originally formed as the Upper Air Laboratory (UAL) with the charter to “determine the extent of the Earth’s atmosphere”, LASP has been engaged in space sciences for 70 years - implementing suborbital, orbital, and interplanetary space research programs. Over this period, LASP has developed full cycle mission capabilities encompassing science, mission design and management, engineering and test, spacecraft operations, data systems and distribution. We present LASP’s small satellite programs and capabilities.
Speaker: Mr Richard Kohnert (CU/LASP)
• 18:00 20:00
Conference diner 2h
• Wednesday, 29 August
• 09:00 10:30
Session 3: Small satellite missions Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
Convener: Marie Dominique (ROB)
• 09:00
An Equatorial Satellite Constellation for Space Weather monitoring and nowcasting over the Singapore region 30m
The Regional Ionosphere Mapping and Autonomous Uplink (RIMAU) mission is a constellation of six CubeSats in an equatorial orbit, making Radio Occultation (RO) measurements of the atmosphere and in-situ Ionospheric measurements to characterize the ionosphere over equatorial South-East Asia in near real time. RIMAU builds on the success of the VELOX-CI mission which carried a COTS NOVATEL GPS receiver and have been operating successfully since December 2015. The Satellite Research Centre at Nanyang Technological University in Singapore has designed, built, tested and operated 7 satellites so far ranging from 1U cubesat to 135 kg VELOX-CI microsatellite. RIMAU will carry GPS receivers for RO and an Ionospheric payload consisting of a planar Langmuir probe, retarding potential analyser and Ion trap/drift meter. RIMAU-1 is scheduled to be in operation by 2020 with the full constellation scheduled for flight by 2021. A secondary objective of RIMAU is to provide a Low Earth Orbiting nanosatellite platform for communication with remote sensors in the region. RIMAU-I will demonstrate communication with remote water sensors monitoring water pollutants and uplink from ground based GPS sensors to adjust the sampling rate for the Ionospheric probe during periods of high scintillation. Understanding the occurrence and impact of Ionospheric irregularities is critically needed for equatorial countries like Singapore. Forecasting Ionospheric plasma bubbles and their day-to-day variability is one of the long-standing frontier challenges in space physics. In this paper, we present a novel idea to combine ground based and space based Ionospheric observations to monitor in near-real time the Ionosphere over the Singapore region to characterize Ionospheric disturbances and their impact on communication and navigation systems. The main data products from these measurements will be vertical profiles of the Total Electron Content (TEC) in the ionosphere, atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles in the troposphere. RIMAU TEC measurements will be combined with ground based TEC measurements from ~ 60 GPS receivers in the SE Asia region, operated by the Earth Observatory of Singapore to produce 3D maps of the Ionosphere. The outcomes from the study will be a space weather ‘now-cast’ system for the region, which has applications to minimize impacts to a number of critical applications, such as point positioning and real-time kinematics (i.e., the location of moving vehicles), which are particularly relevant to the aviation and maritime industry and the emerging autonomous vehicle industry.
Speaker: Prof. Amal Chandran (Nanyang Technological University &amp; LASP)
• 09:30
Testing a Star Identification Algorithm for a Low-cost In-house Star Tracker 20m
High accuracy attitude knowledge is a crucial requirement to achieve a successful scientific mission. A star identification algorithm [Luo et al., 2015] is selected for a low-cost in-house star tracker to minimize development cost. To maximize recognition rates, a new method considering spherical geometry is developed to align one star to the center of an image taken by the star tracker instead of Rodrigues’ rotation formula. The method is first written in MATLAB in prototype level and now rewritten in C for feasibly porting to other platforms. The star tracker is planned to install on a hybrid sounding rocket for validation and finally on CubeSat missions in the future. Reference: Luo, L., Li Xu, and H. Zhang (2015), An autonomous star identification algorithm based on one-dimensional vector pattern for star sensors, Sensor, 15(7):16412-16429, DOI: 10.3390/s150716412.
Speaker: Mr Chung-Sheng Lin (Graduate Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Taiwan)
• 09:50
NOIRE Study Report: Towards a Low Frequency Radio Interferometer in Space 20m
Ground based low frequency radio interferometers have been developed in the last decade and are providing the scientific community with high quality observations. Conversely, current radioastronomy instruments in space have a poor angular resolution with single point observation systems. Improving the observation capabilities of the low frequency range (a few kHz to 100 MHz) requires to go to space and to set up a space based network of antenna that can be used as an interferometer. We present the outcome of the NOIRE (*Nanosatellites pour un Observatoire Interférométrique Radio dans l’Espace* / Nanosatellites for a Radio Interferometer Observatory in Space) study which assessed, with help of CNES’ PASO (*Plateau d’Architecture des Systèmes Orbitaux* : CNES’ Early Mission Studies Team), the feasibility of a swarm of nanosatellites dedicated to a low frequency radio observatory. With such a platform, space system engineering and instrument development must be studied as a whole: each node is a sensor and all sensors must be used together to obtain a measurement. The study was conducted on the following topics: Science traceability matrix (science cases, observational requirements, system and spacecraft characteristics) ; System principle and concept (swarm, node homogeneity, low-control); Space and time management (ranging, clock synchronization); Orbitography (Moon orbit, Lagrange point options); Telecommunication (between nodes and with ground) and networking; Measurements and processing; Propulsion; Power; Electromagnetic compatibility. No strong show-stopper was identified during the preliminary study, although the concept is not yet ready. Several further studies and milestones are identified. The NOIRE team will collaborate with international teams to try and build this next generation of space systems.
Speaker: Mr André LAURENS (CNES)
• 10:10
Network of small satellites for the exploration of planetary Magnetosphere (NETSSEM) 20m
Since March 2018, we have started a CNES study of small satellite concept for the exploration of planetary magnetosphere. The main objectives of this study are to obtain a realistic concept of mission with (a) small satellite(s) in association or not with a main satellite. The small satellite(s) should provide the crucially needed multi-points information for magnetosphere exploration. As an example, in the case of Mars magnetosphere, a second platform providing in situ measurement of the solar wind is highly requested to disentangle spatial from temporal variabilities when measurements are performed inside Mars' magnetosphere. CNES' study should provide a technical answer regarding: - the best compromise between performances of the small satellite and available resources for the payload, - the type of mission definition and measurements that can be achieved. In this presentation, we will present the objectives of this study and the first set of results obtained so far.
Speaker: Dr François Leblanc (LATMOS/IPSL, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UVSQ, Paris, France)
• 10:30 10:40
Coffee Break 10m Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
• 10:40 12:20
Session 3: Small satellite missions Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
Convener: Marie Dominique (ROB)
• 10:40
Invited: The EArth enerGy imbalance ExploreR (EAGER) mission concept 30m
The closure of the Earth energy budget, i.e. the measurement of the difference between the incoming and outgoing radiation at the top of the Earth’s atmosphere (TOA), the Earth Energy Imbalance (EEI), is seen as a key step for improving further our understanding of global climate change. We present the EArth enerGy imbalance ExploreR (EAGER) mission concept, which is dedicated to determine the EEI through measuring simultaneously the incoming Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and TOA outgoing reflected solar and the thermal radiation. To ensure the highest possible accuracy and stability for the EEI observations the TSI and TOR observations will be carried out with the same DARA type absolute radiometers built at PMOD/WRC. In addition, the Solar Spectral Irradiance will be measured with high accuracy and stability by using the DARA-type TSI sensors in combination with transfer filters for the UV, visible and IR part of the spectrum, complemented by ionisation chambers for the calibration in the EUV wavelength range. Moreover, a new cryogenic detector technology is foreseen for the IR part of the spectrum. For the Earth observations, fast and wide field-of-view bolometric sensors will be used to provide daily full Earth coverage of the TOR. These measurements will be calibrated by a stable Earth-pointing DARA instrument. Ultimately, by using the DARA-type TSI radiometers as in-flight calibration facility we will be in the position to determine the EEI from space with the necessary precision, and as such fill a long standing knowledge gap in climate research.
Speaker: Dr Margit Haberreiter (PMOD/WRC)
• 11:10
Prospects on future instrumentation for the Solar Spectrum measurement 20m
The SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument, on board the International Space Station measuring the Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) from the UV to the NIR has been decommissioned last February 2017. A direct consequence is that no more European instrumentation are contributing to the SSI measurement. Monitoring of the UV spectrum variability is a fundamental input for the stratospheric ozone chemistry. Such instrumentation, however, represented a major challenge in terms of calibration but also regarding space environment related degradation issues. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a new generation of instruments measuring the SSI, using already developed, sound and compact technologies in order to minimize cost and size, able to fit in CubeSat-like missions. We propose Acoustic Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) crystals as technological solution for being the central wavelength selection device of a new generation of SSI instruments. AOTF crystal-based spectrometers do not require optical moving parts presenting therefore an advantage over the often bulky optical design of holographic gratings-based spectrometers. They also provide fast spectral scans, are compact and robust with low power consumption. The high Technological Readiness Level (TRL) of the AOTF in the infrared range, is a heritage of successful planetary observation missions instruments such as SOIR on Venus Express (VEx) and NOMAD on ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. AOTFs are functional in the visible part of the spectrum and are currently under development for the ultraviolet range. A quantification of the in-flight performances of SOIR during the whole Vex mission, focusing on the radiometric stability of the AOTF and performances of the light detection chain as well as a discussion on the advantages and drawbacks of AOTF compared to current SSI instruments is presented.
Speaker: Mr Nuno José Pereira (BIRA-IASB)
• 11:30
The Micro Solar Flare Apparatus 20m
The Micro Solar Flare Apparatus (MiSolFA) is a compact X-ray detector designed to be flown in a near-Earth orbit during the next solar maximum. Together, MisolFA and Solar Orbiter's STIX will be able to obtain for the first time a 3-dimensional view of X-ray emitting regions with two cross-calibrated instruments. If flare footpoints are occulted to one of the pair, they will be able to precisely compare the energy spectra of the coronal and chromospheric sources. Different viewpoints will also enable a quantitative estimation of the energy-dependent X-ray emission ratio as a function of the viewing angle, which can lead to valuable information about the anisotropy of flare-accelerated electron distribution. MiSolFA will be the most compact X-ray imaging spectrometer in space. Thanks to absorbing grids produced using a novel approach and to new CdTe photon detectors with small pixel size and excellent energy resolution, MiSolFA will perform indirect imaging between 10 and 100 keV with 10 arcsec angular resolution, sufficient to separate most hard X-ray footpoint sources from each other. The instrument is small enough to equip a 6-units cubesat such as the GSFC-developed Dellingr platform.
Speaker: Ms Erica Lastufka (Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz (FHNW))
• 11:50
A Dual Constellation Mission: SoSWEET-SOUP (SOlar, Space Weather Extreme EvenTs and Stratospheric Ozone Ultimate Profiles) 30m
SoSWEET-SOUP is an innovative small satellites constellation which aims to measure on complementary platforms the solar influence on climate, namely on one part solar activity and spectral variability and, on the other, the different components of the Earth radiation budget, energy input and energy re-emitted at the top of the Earth atmosphere, with a particular focus on the UV part of the spectrum and on the ozone layer, which are most sensitive to solar variability. The far UV (FUV) is the only wavelength band with energy absorbed in the high atmosphere (stratosphere), in the ozone (Herzberg continuum, 200–220 nm) and oxygen bands, and its high variability is most probably at the origin of a climate influence. A simultaneous observation of the incoming FUV and of the ozone (O3) production, would bring an invaluable information on this process of solar-climate forcing. Space instruments have already measured the different components of the Earth radiative budget but this is, to our knowledge, the first time that all instruments will be operated simultaneously on coordinated platforms. This characteristic guarantees by itself obtaining new significant original scientific results. SoSWEET-SOUP is an evolution of the SUITS/SWUSV and SUMO proposed missions, acknowledging the scientific advantages of associating a constellation of 10 to 12 small satellites of some 20 to 30 kg (12 "U" or so nanosatellites) on equatorial orbits (+/- 20° in latitude) to a small polar satellite of 100 to 120 kg on a OneWeb like platform for an almost continuous solar following (a polar orbit is also essential to the understanding of the relation between solar UV variability and stratospheric ozone on arctic and antarctic regions). SoSWEET-SOUP definition's options are still under assessment but will include, on the polar satellite, SUAVE (Solar Ultraviolet Advanced Variability Experiment), an optimized heavy-duty thermally stable SiC telescope for FUV (Lyman-Alpha) and MUV (200–220 nm Herzberg continuum) imaging (sources of variability, extreme events detection), and SOLSIM (SOLar Spectral Irradiance Monitor), a newly designed double-monochromator instrument covering the 170-340 nm ultraviolet spectral range and in within a limited mass-power budget. Other instruments include a small coronagraph, UV and ozone radiometers, Earth radiative budget assembly, Electron-Proton detectors and a vector magnetometer. The constellation of small satellites includes, on its side, precise ozone profiles measurements (miniGOMOS experiment with dual Sun and stars occultations) and detailed energy radiative budget monitors. Science objectives, mission profiles and model payloads will be presented and opportunities of missions and potential collaborations discussed.
Speaker: Dr Luc Damé (LATMOS/IPSL/CNRS/UVSQ)
• 12:20 14:00
Lunch 1h 40m
• 14:00 14:40
Session 3: Small satellite missions Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
Convener: Marie Dominique (ROB)
• 14:00
Electric propulsion capability - ThrustMe 20m
Presentation of the Electric propulsion capability
Speaker: Mr Gautier Brunet (ThrustMe)
• 14:20
Faraday missions a commercial approach for low cost hosting of experimental payloads 20m
Speaker: Mr Ed Stevens (InSpace Missions)
• 14:40 16:15
Round-table discussion: Small satellites for science & international cooperation in space (Dan Baker, Philippe Keckhut, Tom Woods, Didier Fussen, Amal Chandran, Luc Damé) Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University

With Dan Baker (LASP) as special guest

Daniel N. Baker is Director of the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado-Boulder and is Distinguished Professor of Planetary and Space Physics, Professor of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, Professor of Aerospace Engineering, and Professor of Physics there. He holds the Moog-Broad Reach Endowed Chair of Space Sciences at CU. His primary research interest is the study of plasma physical and energetic particle phenomena in planetary magnetospheres and in the Earth's vicinity. He conducts research in space instru-ment design, space physics data analysis, and magnetospheric modeling. Dr. Baker obtained his Ph.D. degree with James A. Van Allen at the University of Iowa. Following postdoctoral work at the California Institute of Technology with Edward C. Stone, he joined the physics research staff at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and became Leader of the Space Plasma Physics Group at LANL in 1981. From 1987 to 1994, he was the Chief of the Laboratory for Extraterrestrial Physics at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. From 1994 to present he has been at the Uni-versity of Colorado. Dr. Baker has published over 800 papers in the refereed literature and has edited eight books on topics in space physics. He is a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He is a member of the International Academy of Astronautics and the U.S. National Academy of Engineering. He currently is an investigator on several NASA space missions including the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission and the Ra-diation Belt Storm Probes (Van Allen Probes) mission.

• 16:15 16:30
Meeting Conclusions Charpak room

### Charpak room

#### Paris, France

Pierre and Marie Curie campus Sorbonne University
Conveners: Marie Dominique (ROB), Dr Mustapha Meftah (LATMOS / CNRS / Paris-Saclay University)